Boring machines are mechanized tools that are used to drill holes in the ground without disturbing surface conditions. Boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled or cast by means of a single-point cutting tool, such as in boring a gun barrel or an engine cylinder. Boring is used to achieve greater accuracy of the diameter of a hole, and can be used to cut a tapered hole. Boring can be viewed as the internal-diameter counterpart to turning, which cuts external diameters.
There are various types of boring. The boring bar may be supported on both ends which only works if the existing hole is a through hole. This is called as Lineboring. It may also be supported at one end which works for both, through holes and blind holes. Backboring is the process of reaching through an existing hole and then boring on the "back" side of the workpiece.
Boring is more challenging than turning, in terms of decreased toolholding rigidity, increased clearance angle requirements (limiting the amount of support that can be given to the cutting edge), and difficulty of inspection of the resulting surface (size, form, surface roughness).
Types of Boring Machine:
There are two types of boring: horizontal auger boring and horizontal directional drilling (HDD). These methods are used to make new installations below the surface like sewer pipes, water pipes, etc. The appropriate method of boring is determined based on soil conditions, ground water level, contamination possibility, etc.
Horizontal Auger Boring Machine:
A horizontal auger boring machine uses a jack and bore to accomplish the work in soft and stable soil conditions. A powerful jack is used to insert a casing pipe to stabilize the soil, while the auger removes the soil from the excavation by its spinning action. The pipe can be strung through once the casing is successfully installed. This method is preferred for installments under highways and railway lines, where settlement is a cause for concern.
Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) Machines:
HDD also known as directional boring or horizontal earth boring, involves using a surface drilling rig to install underground pipes, conduits, cables and any other utility in a shallow arc along a predefined bore path. This technique is so named due to its ability to be steered. Horizontal directional drilling (HDD) machines can be used in almost every kind of installation from cables to pipe installations, under buildings, roads, and even under a river bed. A drill rig is set up depending on the size of the job. Drill rods are strung to each other to make a drill string for pulling back reamers. A wireline transmitter is used for transmitting the position of the drill in progress, so that adjustments can be made by the operator in case obstructions are encountered. Skilled operators can remotely guide the drill head to avoid obstacles and ensure that the bore path remains in compliance with engineering plans and specifications. Because of the ability to facilitate the construction and installation of underground utilities and structures with minimal impact on the surrounding environment, HDD ideal for installations in the vicinity of environmentally sensitive areas, i.e., areas that are protected due to their landscape, rich biodiversity, or historical value.
These locations include:
- Wildlife habitat areas
- Forested areas
- Steep slopes
- Prime agricultural lands
Horizontal directional drilling is a minimally invasive construction technique that addresses the various environmental shortfalls of conventional excavation and trenching. It does not require the construction of above-ground trenches, Thus, making it the preferred construction method in areas where minimal disturbance of the environment is desired. Horizontal bores and installations can be completed under steep or challenging terrain, wetlands, streams, rivers, and protected wildlife and forested zones without impacting on the surrounding area. HDD can also significantly reduce the time for utility installation. Simple horizontal bores can be completed with in a week. Also, HDD requires considerably less construction equipment than conventional trenching.
Faster construction times and less equipment significantly lower construction costs, decreased energy consumption, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.
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