Bricks is a type of block composed of dried clay that is used to build walls, pavements and other elements in masonry construction.
Some facts about Bricks:
Bricks are produced in bulk quantities which vary with region and time period. These can be produced in numerous classes, types, materials and sizes.
Bricks are laid in various kinds of mortar so taht the bricks are hold together to make a durable structure.
Three are three basic types of brick including un-fired, fired and chemically set bricks. Each type of brisk is manufactured differently.
A wet, clay containing soil mixed with straw or similar binders are used to manufacture Unfired bricks. These are also known as mudbricks and are air-dried until ready for use.
Soft mud, dry press or extruded process is used for maufacturing Fired bricks. Fired bricks are durable than other types as these are burned in a kiln.
Extruded or soft mud method is the most commonly used as they are economical.
Normally, bricks contain 50 to 60 percent by weight of silica or sand, 20 to 30 percent by weight of alumina or clay, 2 to 5 percent by weight of lime, less than or equal to 7 percent by weight of iron oxide and less than 1 percent by weight of magnesia.
Heat and pressure are applied in an autoclave to accelerate the curing process for Chemically set brick.
Depending on their ingredients, calcium silicate bricks are also called sandlime or flintlime bricks. These are made with lime binding the silicate material rather than clay.
Lime mixed with sand in a proportion of about 1 to 10, quartz, crushed flint or crushed siliceous rock with mineral colourants are used to make calcium silicate bricks.
Concrete bricks are typically pale grey and are usually termed as blocks or concrete masonry unit.
A dry, small aggregate concrete is made in steel moulds by vibration and compaction in either an egglayer or static machine to form Concrete bricks.
The finished concrete blocks are cured using low pressure steam.
Concrete bricks are made with sulfate-resisting Portland cement or equivalent and are available in many colours and as an engineering brick.
Movement joints are required every 5 to 6 metres for concrete bricks as they contract or shrink.
Slightly moistened local soils compressed with a mechanical hydraulic press or manual lever press are used in the manufacturing of Compressed earth blocks. These are more stabilized when small amount of a cement binder is added in the process of manufacturing.
Bricks must be small enough and light enough for efficient handling and laying.
Bigger bricks are necessary in colder climates to make the wall thicker and insulating while smaller bricks are more adequate and economical in warmer regions.
Types of Bricks:
Depending on the use, size, forming method, origin, quality, texture, and/or materials, bricks are of different types. Some of these include:
Extruded bricks comes with a very consistent size and shape that are made by being forced through an opening in a steel die.
Wire cut bricks are cut to size with a tensioned wire after extrusion leaving drag marks.
Moulded bricks are shaped in moulds instead of being extruded. These can be either handmade or machine moulded. Clay is forced into moulds by a person in case of handmade where as clay is forced into moulds using pressure in machine moulded process.
Dry pressed bricks are similar to soft mud method, but a much thicker clay mix are used and is compressed with great force.
Common or building brick is not intended to be visible and is used for internal structure.
Face brick is used on exterior surfaces to present a clean appearance.
Hollow brick is not solid, and the holes are less than 25 percent of the brick volume. Holes greater than 25 percent of the brick volume in perforated brick.
Keyed brick can be used with rendering and plastering as it is indentated in at least one face and end.
Paving brick is intended to be in ground contact as a walkway or roadway.
Thin brick comes with normal height and length but thin width to be used as a veneer.
Chemically resistant bricks are made with resistance to chemical reactions. Acid brick are acid resistant bricks and are thremally durable.
Engineering brick is typically a hard, dense brick where strength, low water porosity or acid resistance are required. These are further classified as type A and type B based on their compressive strength.
Fire or refractory brick are highly heat resistant bricks which can be either Clinker which is a vitrified brick or Ceramic glazed which is fire bricks with a decorative glazing.
Cream City brick is made in Milwaukee, Wisconsin which is a light yellow brick.
Dutch brick is originally from the Netherlands which is a hard light colored brick.
Fareham red brick is a type of construction brick
London stock brick is a type of handmade brick which was used for most of building work in London and South East England until they start using machine made bricks.
Nanak Shahi bricks is a type of decorative brick used in India.
Roman brick is a long, flat brick typically used by the Romans.
Staffordshire blue brick is a type of construction brick used in England.
The correct type of brick for a specific job can be selected from a choice of color, density, weight, surface texture, absorption and pore structure, thermal characteristics, thermal and moisture movement and fire resistance.
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