A system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial or administrative purposes is known as a calendar. This is arranged by periods of time, days, weeks, months and years. A single, specific day within such a system is designated as a day.
Types of Calendars:
Calendars fall into four types. These include lunisolar, solar, lunar, seasonal. Calendars are also there with "years" of fixed length, with no intercalation. Most pre-modern calendars are lunisolar. The seasonal calendars are based on on changes in the environment rather than lunar or solar observations.
A date is assigned to each solar day in Solar calendars. A day may be defined as the period between sunrise and sunset, with a following period of night, or it may be a period between successive events such as two sunsets. The interval between two such successive events may vary slightly during the year, or it may be averaged into a mean solar day. A year approximates tropical year of Earth in a solar calendar. That means, the time it takes for a complete cycle of seasons is used to facilitate the planning of agricultural activities. As the number of days in the tropical year is not a whole number, a solar calendar must have a different number of days in different years. This can be adjusted by adding an extra day in leap years.
A calendar in which days are numbered within each lunar phase cycle is known as lunar calendar. A purely lunar calendar quickly drifts against the seasons, because the length of the lunar month is not an even fraction of the length of the tropical year. The month approximates the cycle of the moon phase in a lunar calendar. Consecutive days may be grouped into week.
A lunar calendar that compensates by adding an extra month as required to realign the months with the seasons is a lunisolar calendar. Hindu calendar and Buddhist calendar are the most prominent examples of lunisolar calendar.
Uses of Calendar:
Calendar is primarily used to identify days. It is used to be informed about or to agree on a future event and to record an event that has happened. Days are significant for agricultural, civil, religious or social reasons. A calendar is used to provide the way to determine when to start planting or harvesting, which days are religious or civil holidays. It is also used to determine which days mark the beginning and end of business accounting periods, and which days have legal significance, such as the day taxes are due or a contract expires. A calendar may provide other useful information about the day such as its season by identifying a day. Calendars are also helpful for managing personal schedules, time and activities of a person. This is particularly when individuals have numerous work, school, and family commitments. Some people use multiple systems and keep both a business and family calendar to help prevent them from over-committing their time. These are also used as part of a complete timekeeping system. Date and time of day together specify a moment in time. A timekeeper can show time, date and weekday. Some may also show lunar phase.
The Gregorian calendar is a popular type of calendar that is used in most of the world. This calendar is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. Being purely solar calendar, with a cycle of leap days in a 400-year cycle. it is designed to keep the duration of the year aligned with the solar year. Gregorian year consist of either 365 or 366 days (the leap day being inserted as 29 February). An average Gregorian year consist of 365.2425 days as compared to a solar year of 365.2422 days.
A n electronic version of a calendar is provided to the users by Calendaring software. Additionally it provides an appointment book, address book or contact list. Calendaring is a standard feature of many PDAs, EDAs, and smartphones.
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