An extruder is simply the machine used to complete the extrusion process. Using a system of barrels and cylinders, the machine heats up the product and propels it through the die to create the desired shape. A wide variety of industrial extruders available, and each one is intended for a particular purpose or set of purposes. Some are designed to also serve a specific niche function, such as de-airing a material, de-watering it or pelletizing it.
Extrusion is a series of processes which includes mixing, forming, puffing and drying. Single and twin screw extruders are the two main types of extruders based on screw configuration. Twin screw extruders can be co-rotating or counter-rotating depending on direction of rotation.
Extruders were originally developed for extrusion of cereal grains and pet foods, but were later used to process other materials such as rice bran prior to solvent extraction to improve extractability, and to process other oilseeds to deactivate enzymes that impair oil quality.
Types of Extruder:
Many types of extruders are used in the food industries and several designs are possible for a food extruder. The most commonly used extruder consists of the flighted screw(s) or worm(s) rotating within a sleeve or barrel to be termed as the screw extruder. However, the piston type extruders are possible though they are used in other type of industries. The flights on the screw push the plasticized material forward and discharge through an opening or the die.
A variety of extruders have been developed to manufacture different types of food products. On the basis of the number of the screw, extruders can be classified as a single-screw or twin-screw extruders. The twin-screw extruder is partially developed on the experience and the knowledge derived from the understanding of single-screw extrusion cooking.
Uses of Extruder Machine:
Extruders can be used to create a wide variety of usable products by shaping various materials.
Breakfast cereals and pre-formed snacks are often made using food extruders, which use uniform, controlled pressure and temperature to create the near-identical pieces.
Pet food and treats are created with food extruders to create a high level of consistency and quality in the meals. Food forming extruders can be used as standalone applications or be combined with a cooking extruder for unitized cooking and cooling.
Catalyst extruder machines are used to create catalysts such as high aluminas, gels, kaolin carriers, molecular sieves and more. Minute pellets, solid rods, unsupported rings or another catalyst configuration can be done by these extruder that is meant for many industries.
A rubber extruder can break down the large, tacky bales without the use of talc or special chemicals. Rubber bales can also be extruded for a variety of purposes. For instance, rubber extruders can create extruded hydrogels, which are used to create everything from contact lenses to replacement cartilage.
Extrusion equipment is even used to create the materials that keep the air and water in our homes purified.
Vacuum extruders, which were originally used in the clay industry to de-air their products, are now used to create activated carbon. The extruder de-airs the carbon to increase its adsorptive properties and prepare it for use for any number of air and water purification applications.
Plastic extruders can be used to create PVC pipe.
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