An extruder is a machine used to complete the extrusion process. Using a system of barrels and cylinders, the machine heats up the product and propels it through the die to create the desired shape. There are so many variety of industrial extruders available. Each one is intended for a particular purpose or set of purposes. Some of them are designed to serve a specific niche function, such as de-watering, de-airing a material or pelletizing it. Extrusion is a series of processes that include mixing, forming, puffing and drying. The two main types of extruders are single and twin screw extruders. These are based on screw configuration. Twin screw extruders can be co-rotating or counter-rotating depending on direction of rotation.
Originally, extruders were developed for extrusion of cereal grains and pet foods. But later these were used to process other materials such as rice bran prior to solvent extraction to improve extractability. These were also used to process other oilseeds to deactivate enzymes that impair oil quality.
Types of Extruder
Different types of extruders are used in the food industries and several designs are possible for a food extruder. The most commonly used extruder is screw extruder. It consists of the flighted screw(s) or worm(s) rotating within a sleeve or barrel. However, the piston type extruders are also possible though they are used in other type of industries. The flights on the screw push the plasticized material forward and discharge through an opening or the die. So many types of extruders have been developed to manufacture different types of food products. Extruders can be classified as a single-screw or twin-screw extruders on the basis of the number of the screw. The twin-screw extruder is partially developed on the experience and the knowledge derived from the understanding of single-screw extrusion cooking.
Uses of Extruder Machine:
Extruders can be used to create a wide variety of usable products by shaping various materials.
Food extruders are used to make breakfast cereals and pre-formed snacks. This use uniform, controlled pressure and temperature to create the near-identical pieces. Pet food and treats are created with food extruders to create a high level of consistency and quality in the meals. Food forming extruders can be used as standalone applications. It can also be combined with a cooking extruder for unitized cooking and cooling.
Catalyst extruder machines are used to create catalysts such as gels, kaolin carriers, high aluminas, molecular sieves and more. Minute pellets, solid rods, unsupported rings or another catalyst configuration can be done by these extruder that is meant for many industries.
A rubber extruder can break down the large, tacky bales without the use of talc or special chemicals. Rubber bales can also be extruded for a number of purposes. For example, rubber extruders can create extruded hydrogels. These are used to create everything from contact lenses to replacement cartilage.
Extrusion equipment is also used to create the materials that keep the air and water in our homes purified. Vacuum extruders were originally used in the clay industry to de-air their products. These are now used to create activated carbon. The extruder de-airs the carbon to increase its adsorptive properties and prepare it for use for any number of air and water purification applications.
PVC pipe are created by the use of plastic extruders.
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