Incinerator is a device used in a waste treatment technology. It involves the combustion of waste materials at high temperatures. This type of high temperature waste treatment systems are described as thermal treatment. In this process waste materials is converted into heat which can be used for generating electricity.
Incineration of waste materials converts the waste into ash, flue gas and heat. The ash is mostly formed by the inorganic constituents of the waste and may take the form of solid lumps or particulates carried by the flue gas. The flue gases must be cleaned of gaseous and particulate pollutants before they are dispersed into the atmosphere. In some cases, the heat generated by incineration can be used to generate electric power.
An incinerator is a furnace for burning waste. Modern incinerators include pollution mitigation equipment such as flue gas cleaning. Various types of incinerator plant design include moving grate, fixed grate, rotary-kiln, and fluidised bed.
Types of Incinerator:
Types of Incinerator are:
One of the simplest and earliest forms of waste disposal is burn pile, essentially consisting of a mound of combustible materials piled on the open ground and set on fire.
The burn barrel is a more controlled form of private waste incineration, containing the burning material inside a metal barrel, with a metal grating over the exhaust.
The typical incineration plant for municipal solid waste is a moving grate incinerator. The moving grate enables the movement of waste through the combustion chamber to be optimized to allow a more efficient and complete combustion. Moving grate incinerators are sometimes referred to as Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWIs).
The waste is introduced by a waste crane through the "throat" at one end of the grate, from where it moves down over the descending grate to the ash pit in the other end. Here the ash is removed through a water lock. The primary combustion air is supplied through the grate from below. This air flow also has the purpose of cooling the grate itself. Cooling is important for the mechanical strength of the grate, and many moving grates are also water-cooled internally.
Secondary combustion air is supplied into the boiler at high speed through nozzles over the grate. It facilitates complete combustion of the flue gases by introducing turbulence for better mixing and by ensuring a surplus of oxygen.
This is the older and simpler kind of incinerator. It is a brick-lined cell with a fixed metal grate over a lower ash pit, with one opening in the top or side for loading and another opening in the side for removing incombustible solids called clinkers.
The rotary-kiln incinerator is used by municipalities and by large industrial plants. This incinerator has two chambers: a primary chamber and secondary chamber. The primary chamber in a rotary kiln incinerator consists of an inclined refractory lined cylindrical tube. The inner refractory lining serves as sacrificial layer to protect the kiln structure. This refractory layer needs to be replaced from time to time. Movement of the cylinder on its axis facilitates movement of waste. In the primary chamber, there is conversion of solid fraction to gases, through volatilization, destructive distillation and partial combustion reactions. The secondary chamber is necessary to complete gas phase combustion reactions. The clinkers spill out at the end of the cylinder. A tall flue-gas stack, fan, or steam jet supplies the needed draft. Ash drops through the grate, but many particles are carried along with the hot gases. The particles and any combustible gases may be combusted in an "afterburner".
A strong airflow is forced through a sandbed. The air seeps through the sand until a point is reached where the sand particles separate to let the air through and mixing and churning occurs, thus a fluidized bed is created and fuel and waste can now be introduced. The sand with the pre-treated waste and/or fuel is kept suspended on pumped air currents and takes on a fluid-like character. The bed is thereby violently mixed and agitated keeping small inert particles and air in a fluid-like state. This allows all of the mass of waste, fuel and sand to be fully circulated through the furnace.
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