Milk is a liquid food produced by the mammary glands of mammals which is rich in nutrient and dairy products are products that are made from milk, such as cheese, yogurt, kefir, ice cream and butter.
Milk is the main source of nutrition for young mammals before they are able to digest solid food.
Early-lactation milk, which is called colostrum, reduces the risk of many diseases as it contains antibodies that strengthen the immune system.
Many other nutrients, including protein and lactose are present in milk.
It is recommended by the US CDC that children over the age of 12 months should have two servings of dairy milk products a day.
Dairy milk is collected from farm animals as an agricultural product.
India is the largest producer of milk around the world and it is the leading exporter of skimmed milk powder with few other milk products .
Milk is a colloid of butterfat globules or an emulsion within a water based fluid containing dissolved carbohydrates and protein aggregates with minerals.
Milk is essential for growth as it is produced as a food source for the young.
Pasteurization is a process used to kill harmful pathogenic bacteria by heating the milk for a short time and then immediately cooling it.
Full cream, reduced fat, skim milk, calcium enriched, flavored, and UHT are different types of pasteurized milk.
Pasteurized milk is safe to drink for up to three weeks if continually refrigerated as the pathogenic bacteria in milk are completely killed by the standard high temperature short time (HTST) process of 72 degree centigrade for 15 seconds.
Some vitamin and mineral content will be lost by heating of pasteurization. However, significant amounts of thiamin and vitamin B12 can be provided in comparison to the loss.
Pasteurization can be replaced with Microfiltration that produces milk with fewer microorganisms and longer shelf life without a change in the taste of the milk.
Cream is separated from the skimmed milk and is pasteurized in the usual way in this process.
But, the skimmed milk trap 99.9 percent of microorganisms in the milk as it is forced through ceramic microfilters.
The original milk composition can be reconstitute by recombining the skimmed milk with the pasteurized cream.
Finer filters are used in Ultrafiltration than microfiltration, which allow lactose and water to pass through while retaining fats, calcium and protein
The fat may be removed before filtration and added back in afterwards in this process.
Ultrafiltered milk can be used in cheesemaking as it has reduced volume for a given protein content.
It is sold as an alternative to regular milk as a higher protein, lower sugar content, and creamier.
Nutrition of Milk:
13 essential nutrients can be provided in each serving of milk including: protein, calcium, phosphorus, vitamins A and D and B vitamins including B12, riboflavin, pantothenic acid and niacin.
The composition of milk differs widely among species depending on factors such as the type of protein; the proportion of protein, fat, and sugar; the levels of various vitamins and minerals; and the size of the butterfat globules, and the strength of the curd .
Human milk contains, about 1.1 percent protein, 4.2 percent fat, 7.0 percent lactose (a sugar), and can supply almost 72 kcal of energy per 100 grams, where as cow's milk contains about 3.4 percent protein, 3.6 percent fat, and 4.6 percent lactose, 0.7 percent minerals and can supply almost 66 kcal of energy per 100 grams.
The milk of seals and whales may contain more than 50 percent fat where as the milk of donkey and horse have the lowest fat content.
Additives and flavoring in Milk:
Vitamin D is commonly added to commercially sold milk to make up for lack of exposure to UVB radiation.
Vitamin A palmitate is added reduced-fat milks to compensate for the loss of the vitamin during fat removal. A a results of this, reduced fat milks have a higher vitamin A content than whole milk.
Often, flavoring agents are added to it for better taste or as a means of improving sales.
Powdered milk is the most durable form of milk which is produced from milk by removing almost all water.
Usually, the moisture content is less than 5 percent in both drum and spray-dried powdered milk.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people will have poor absorption of milk lactose due to deficiency or absence of the enzyme lactase in the small intestine. Abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, gas, and nausea are some of the symptoms of Lactose intolerance.
This condition may put people at risk of not getting enough of the nutrition their bodies need. For these people, lactose-free milk is available, which is real milk with all nutrients of milk, just without the lactose.
Non-culinary uses of Milk:
Milk can be used by farmers and gardeners as an organic fungicide and fertilizer.
An effective method of preventing powdery mildew on grape vines can be provided by diluted milk solutions.
Milk paint can be made from milk and lime, generally with pigments added for color which is a nontoxic water-based paint.
Milk can also be used as a hair and skin treatment.
Rinsing hair with milk can add a shiny appearance to the hair.
Milk can help exfoliate and remove debris from skin and make hair softer.
Dairy Products are rich sources of energy which are generally produced from milk.
Milk of various types including whole milk, skim milk, buttermilk; yoghurt; cheese such as Swiss cheese, cheddar cheese, cottage cheese; and ice cream are some of the dairy product.
Milk, yoghurt and cheese are the best sources of calcium out of all milk products.
Natural cheese is made from four basic ingredients including milk, salt, good bacteria, and an enzyme called rennet.
A variety of cheeses of differing textures, flavors and colors can be produced by using different proportions of these basic things coupled with different aging processes
It is a fermented food that makes significant contributions to a nutritious diet.
Cheese is important to help build and maintain healthy bones as it is a good source of calcium, protein and phosphorus
Yogurt is made when milk is fermented by adding the cultures Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The milk thickens and takes on a tangy quality as the cultures grow, resulting in the creamy yogurt.
Protein and other essential nutrients like calcium, zinc and B12 are provided by yogurt.
Some yogurt also help maintain digestive health as it provide probiotics or good bacteria. These good bacteria can help in the digestion of lactose, making it easier to digest if you have lactose intolerance.
Strained yogurts like Greek-and Icelandic style have less lactose contain
Whey is a protein-rich liquid found naturally in milk which is made during the process of making cheese when the milk is separated into solids called curds and whey.
The whey rom milk is pasteurized and dried into whey protein powder for various uses as it contains all the essential amino acids.
Whey can help build and repair muscle after workout as it is higher in protein that can help preserve muscle with age, help curb hunger and help maintain a healthy weight.
Whey protein dissolves easily in liquids and provides a neutral flavor and smooth texture.
Whey protein powder can be added to oatmeal, soups, sauces, dips, baked goods and many other foods for a nutritious boost.
Fresh milk has a tendency to separate into a high-fat cream layer on top of a larger, low-fat milk layer, upon standing for 12 to 24 hours.
A centrifugal cream separators can be used for the separation of the cream from the milk.
Cream is the high fat milk product separated from milk, containing at least 18 percent milk fat.
Different variety of cream have different fat content. The half-and-half cream has between 10.5 to 18 percent milkfat, while heavy cream or heavy whipping cream, contains more than 36 percent milkfat.
The amount of fat in cream as well as its temperature influence how well cream whips.
Choose a cream with a high fat content for best whipping results as heavy whipping cream increases more in volume than light whipping cream and light whipping cream whips to a greater volume than light cream.
Sour cream can be made by adding lactic acid bacteria to pasteurized cream containing at least 18 percent milkfat.
Butter is made from milk, cream or both of these ingredients which is a concentrated source of milk fat with some water and nonfat milk solids.
Traditional butter is made from pasteurized cream which contains 80 percent milk fat and can be either salted or unsalted.
Whipped butter is another common variety of butter, which is regular butter and is easier to spread as air or nitrogen has been whipped to increase its volume.
Clarified butter and ghee are other types of butter which is clear, melted butter separated from its milk solids and water.
Clarified butter is great for or frying as it can be heated to a higher temperature without burning.
Lactose-Free Dairy Products:
Lactose-Free Dairy Products can be used by those people who are lactose intolerance.
Lactose-free milk can be produced by passing milk over lactase enzyme bound to an inert carrier to split the molecules so that there will be no lactose ill effects.
These are available with reduced amounts of lactose which is typically 30 percent of normal, and alternatively with nearly 0 percent.
Lactose-free milk is a slightly sweeter in taste than regular milk due to the cleavage of lactose into glucose and galactose
Lactose-reduced milk can also be produced by ultra filtration, in which smaller molecules such as lactose and water will be removed while leaving calcium and proteins behind.
Milk produced through these methods has a lower sugar content than regular milk.
Ice cream is made by stirring a pasteurized mix milk and sometimes other dairy products like cream, sweeteners, and flavorings while freezing. It may also include stabilizers or emulsifiers and a minimum of 10 percent milkfat.
Sherbet, frozen custard are other dairy products like ice cream which has less milkfat.
Frozen yogurt, gelato and soft serve are other popular frozen dairy products.
Benefits of Milk and other Dairy products:
Milk and dairy products are the prime food source of protein and calcium as one liter of milk can provide approximately 1200 mg of calcium, which is more than the daily requirement for calcium in our body.
Calcium present in milk is in a bioavailable form which is readily absorbed. The absorption of calcium can be enhanced by the intake of vitamin A and lactose.
Adequate intake of calcium is essential for growth in childhood. It also help prevent diseases like osteoporosis in adulthood.
Including calcium in your diet can help control hypertension.
Consuming skim milk and low fat yoghurt instead of whole milk will reduce the health risks associated with dairy fat as a 300 ml glass of full cream milk contains 10 g of fat, where as a 300 ml glass of skim milk only contains 0.6 g of fat.
Milk, cheese and yogurt, helps build and repair muscle tissue as these contain protein which is the building block of all cells in the body, including immune cells and immune-signaling molecules.
Milk and yogurt are good sources of zinc, which are important for normal immune function.
Milk helps support healthy immune cells and keep skin and eyes healthy as it is a good source of vitamin A.
Calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D that are found in milk and milk products can help build and maintain strong bones and teeth.
Dairy foods can help your body convert food into fuel as these also contain B vitamins.
Vitamin B12 found in milk, cheese and yogurt, Riboflavin (vitamin B2) found in milk and yogurt, Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) found in milk and yogurt and Niacin (vitamin B3) found in milk and cheese helps your body convert food into fuel.
Including milk and milk products in your daily diet can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, blood pressure, inflammation and osteoporosis.
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