Minerals and Ores

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Browse Popular Minerals and Ores Items From Top Suppliers

Best Quality Natural Gypsum Rock

Best Quality Natural Gypsum Rock
Price : Rs 1700 / Metric Ton

Shaheen International Traders

Malerkotla, Punjab, India, Malerkotla, Punjab, 148023, India

Gold Bars 23 Karats

Gold Bars 23 Karats
Price : $ 28000 / Kilogram

Volta Gold Mines Ltd

box 1000, Accra, GAR, 00233, Ghana

Minerals and Ores:

Minerals are metals that occur naturally in the earth's crust where as Ores are minerals that can profitably be used to get the metal.

Some facts about Minerals and Ores:


  • The main source of minerals and ores is the Earth.
  • Most of the elements are not found in Free State due to their reactive tendencies.
  • Potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, aluminium, zinc, iron, lead etc are some examples of metals that are found in combined state.
  • The metals and their compounds are found in earth naturally as minerals.
  • The rock from which the metal is extracted in a convenient and economical way is called as ore which contain good percentage of metal.
  • A deposit of one or more precious minerals in the Earth's crust is known as ore.
  • Naturally occurring inorganic solids with a crystalline structure and a definite range of chemical formula are called as minerals.
  • Although all ores are minerals, all minerals are not necessarily ores. 
  • A mineral is composed of the same substance throughout which are made of either a single chemical or a combination of chemicals.
  • Minerals are classified into 8 groups.
  • Mineral must occur naturally, must be inorganic, must be a solid,  must possess an orderly internal structure, that is, its atoms must be arranged in a definite pattern and must have a definite chemical composition that may vary within specified limits.
  • Ore is a mineral or an aggregate of minerals from which a metal can be profitably mined or extracted. Therefore, ores are raw materials for making metals.
  • When metals exist combined with other elements as compounds, they are called ores.
  • Minerals are inorganic catalysts that help regulate metabolic activities in the body. 
  • An element can be combined with a variety of other elements to make myriad minerals but, only a few are viable sources of that metal out of them which are called ores.
  • Ore has a definite composition.
  • Ores Oxides, Ores Carbonate, Sulphide Ores, Ores Halides are four kinds of ores.
  • Copper, silver, and iron are the most important ore deposits that contain metals which are essential to industry and trade.
  • Copper ore is mined for a wide range of industrial applications and is used as an electrical wire as it is an exceptional electricity conductor.
  • Traced of silver is present in the natural mineral form of Gold. It may also contain traces of copper and iron.
  • Sphalerite (zinc blende) is the most common zinc ore, which is a mineral of zinc sulphide.
  • Calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, iron, zinc, iodine, chromium, copper, fluoride, molybdenum, manganese, and selenium are some of the minerals those are essential for health that our bodies need to develop and function normally.
  • Most of the materials used in everyday life from minerals, including metals, chemicals used in manufacturing, food additives, etc are obtained rom minerals.
  • Minerals of some important metals are Aluminum: Bauxite; Antimony: stibrite; Barium: Barite; Chromium: Chromite; Copper: Cuprite.
  • Ores of Aluminium are Bauxite, Cryolite, Corundum
  • Ores of Zinc are Zinc Blende, Calamine, Zincite
  • Ores of Iron are Haemitite, Magnetite, Iron pyrites and Spathic iron ore 
  • Cinnabar (HgS), is an ore of mercury, sphalerite (ZnS), is an ore of zinc, or cassiterite (SnO2).

Extraction of Ores And Minerals:


  • The process of extracting metal ores from underground is called mining.
  • The minerals in the ground can be used by the extraction of metals from ores
  • Ore generally consist of the desired metal compound and the impurities and earthly substances called gangue.
  • Concentration of Ore, isolation of metal from concentrated Ore and purification of the metal are the steps involved in the extraction of metals and their isolation.
  • Prospecting or exploration is done to find and define the extent and value of ore where it is located.
  • Resource estimation is conducted to mathematically estimate the size and grade of the deposit.
  • A pre-feasibility study is conducted to determine the theoretical economics of the ore deposit.
  • Further investment in estimation and engineering studies is warranted as well as key risks and areas for further work can be identified by this.
  • A feasibility study is conducted to evaluate the financial viability, technical and financial risks and robustness of the project and a decision is made as whether to develop or walk away from a proposed mine project.
  • Mine planning is included in this to evaluate the economically recoverable portion of the deposit, the metallurgy and ore recoverability, marketability and payability of the ore concentrates, finance and equity requirements, engineering, milling and infrastructure costs and a cradle to grave analysis of the possible mine, from the initial excavation to reclamation.
  • Development of access to an ore body and building of mine plant and equipment is done
  • The operation of the mine in an active sense as well as reclamation to make land where a mine had been suitable for future use is done for the basic extraction of ore deposits.

Classification of Ores And Minerals:


  • Ore is mixed with other valuable minerals and with unwanted or valueless rocks and minerals.
  • Gangue tis he part of an ore that is not economically desirable and that can not be avoided in mining.
  • The valuable ore minerals are separated from the gangue minerals by mineral processing or ore dressing.
  • An ore deposit is one occurrence of a particular ore type which is an economically significant accumulation of minerals within a host rock and is distinct from a mineral resource.
  • Ore deposits are mostly named according to their location, or after a discoverer or after some whimsy, a historical figure, a prominent person, a city or town from which the owner came, something from mythology or the code name of the resource company which found it.
  • Ore deposits are classified according to various criteria developed through the study of economic geology, or ore genesis. 
  • The classification is based on Hydrothermal epigenetic deposits, Granite related hydrothermal, Magmatic deposits, Volcanic-related depositsMetamorphically reworked deposits, Carbonatite-alkaline igneous related, Sedimentary depositsHydrothermal deposits formed largely from basinal brines and Astrobleme-related ores.
  • Ore deposits and ore minerals are classified into several main commodity groups including metallic and semimetallic elements, nonmetallic elements, gems, construction and manufacturing materials, fertilizer and chemical minerals, and energy resources.
  • Gold, silver, copper, iron, manganese, aluminum are examples of metallic and semimetallic elements.
  • Potassium, sodium, phosphorous, sulfur are examples of nonmetallic elements.
  • Diamond, sapphire, agate are examples of gems are examples of.
  • Sand, clay, building stone, diatomite, talc, mica, zeolites are examples of industrial materials such as construction and manufacturing.
  • Limestone, phosphate, potash, salt, nitrate, fluorite are examples of industrial materials such as fertilizer and chemicals.
  • Coal, oil, gas, uranium are examples of energy resources.

Oxides Ores:


Bauxite is an ore that is used to create aluminum metal as it is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
It is also used to manufacture other industrial products, such as abrasives, cement and chemicals.


Cuprites is an important ore of copper that is soft, heavy, red oxide mineral (Cu2O) and is formed by the weathering of copper sulfide minerals.
Cuprite help stimulate and promote grounding of the total body as well as increasing vitality and energy.
It also helps manage vertigo and altitude sickness.
It appears as cubic, octahedral, or dodecahedral forms, or in combinations because of its dark crystals with red internal reflections are in the isometric system hexoctahedral class.


Hematite is a heavy and relatively hard oxide mineral, ferric oxide (Fe2O3), that constitutes iron ore because of its high iron content and its abundance.
It is widely found in rocks and soils and has the same crystal structure as corundum and ilmenite.
Hematite is used to produce pigments, preparations for heavy media separation, ballast, radiation shielding and many other products. 
Hematite is a natural stone that can be used to balance and support the healing of your body and your home as the dark color of the stone considered to absorb and protect any negative energies in your home.


Casseterite, also called tinstone, is a heavy, metallic, hard tin dioxide (SnO2) and is the major ore of tin.
It is colourless in its pure form, but brown or black when iron impurities are present.
Cassiterite contains 78.6 percent Sn and are the principle tin ore that is used as plates, cans, solders, containers and polishing compounds and alloys.

Carbonate Ores:


Limestone is a carbonate sedimentary rock that is composed of calcium carbonate (calcite) or the double carbonate of calcium and magnesium (dolomite).
It is composed of tiny fossils, shell fragments and other fossilized debris.
It forms when calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate precipitate out of water containing dissolved calcium.
Limestone is a primary source of lime (calcium oxide), which is used in steel manufacturing, paper production, water treatment and purification, mining and plastic production. 
Lime also has major applications in agriculture and in the manufacture of glass.


Calamine is a historic name for an ore of zinc which was derived from lapis calaminaris, a Latin corruption of Greek cadmia, the old name for zinc ores in general.
It is a combination of zinc oxide and 0.5 percent ferric oxide (Fe2O3) which can be used to relieve the itching, pain, and discomfort of minor skin irritations, such as those caused by poison oak, poison ivy  and poison sumac.


Siderite is a Carbonate Ore that is composed of iron(II) carbonate (FeCO3).
It is a valuable iron mineral, as it is 48 percent iron and contains no sulfur or phosphorus.
Siderite can be used as an iron ore and for steel production.

Sulphide Ores:

Zinc blende:

Zinc Blende is the mineral Zinc Sulphide which is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.
ZnS is most commonly used as a pigment for paints, plastics, and rubber.
Lithopone is a mixture of ZnS and barium sulfate (BaSO4), which is a widely used pigment for low-gloss paints.
It is also useful for several electronic and decorative applications as it is phosphorescent.

Copper glance :

Copper glance is a sulphide ore of copper (Cu2S) that can be converted to cuprous oxide (Cu2O) by just heating in air.
It is opaque and dark gray to black, with a metallic luster that can be used as a minor ore of copper and as mineral specimens.


Galena is the primary ore of lead, and can be used as a source of lead in ceramic glaze. 
It is often mined for its silver content.
Crystal system is cubic, isometric system which is often associated with the minerals like sphalerite, calcite and fluorite.
Galena can be ground into a powder and mixed with other natural materials to use as paint for objects, buildings and personal adornment.


Cinnabar is the only important ore of mercury and is a toxic mercury sulfide mineral with a chemical composition of HgS.
It is a deep red mercury sulphide mineral that is used to color paints and as one of red coloring agents used in tattoo dyes.

Halide Ores:

Rock Salt:

Salt in the form of a natural crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite, primarily composed of sodium chloride.
Rock salt is mostly used as a gritting salt both residentially and municipally for managing ice and to a lesser extent snow.
Rock salt is considered more natural and healthy due to its coarseness.
Rock salt is effective in preventing many diseases as it contains a variety of minerals.
Numerous health benefits from healthy skin and hair to weight loss can be offered when you replace your daily salt with this purest form of salt.


Fluorspar is a halide ore that is used in aluminum, steel, refrigeration units, electric car batteries, medical supplies, cement, smart phones and hydrofluoric acid.
Glazes and surface treatments can be made by Fluorspar that produce hard glossy surfaces, opalescent surfaces, and a number of other appearances that make consumer glass objects more attractive or more durable.
Products such as aluminum, gasoline, insulating foams, refrigerants, steel, and uranium fuel can be manufactured by Fluorspar directly or indirectly.

Horn silver :

Horn silver, also called as cerargyrite, is a gray, very heavy halide mineral composed of silver chloride (AgCl).
It is an ore of silver that is used in electroplating and polishing mirrors and in making alloys.
It can be used as an antidote that reacts with the poison to produce a harmless chemical compound.
Horn silver is converted into Ag by the process of pyrometallurgical.

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