Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that converts to a solid film after application to a substrate in a thin layer. It is most commonly used to protect, color, or provide texture to objects. Paint can be made or purchased in many colors. Paint is available in many different types, such as watercolor or synthetic. Paint is typically stored, sold, and applied as a liquid, but most types dry into a solid. Most paints are either oil-based or water-based and each have distinct characteristics.
Types of Paint:
It is a preparatory coating put on materials before applying the paint itself. The primed surface ensures better adhesion of the paint, thereby increasing the durability of the paint and providing improved protection for the painted surface. Suitable primers also may block and seal stains, or hide a color that is to be painted over.
These are water-based paints in which the paint material is dispersed in a liquid that consists mainly of water. For suitable purposes this has advantages in fast drying, low toxicity, low cost, easier application, and easier cleaning of equipment, among other factors.
Varnish and shellac:
These are in effect paints without pigment. They provide a protective coating without substantially changing the color of the surface, though they can emphasise the colour of the material.
This is a type of paint that is formulated to be very "thin", meaning low in viscosity, so that the pigment soaks into a material such as wood rather than remaining in a film on the surface. Stain is mainly dispersed pigment or dissolved dye plus binder material in solvent. It is designed to add color without providing a surface coating.
It is a solvent-based paint or varnish that produces an especially hard, durable finish. Usually it is a rapidly drying formulation.
It is formulated to give an especially hard, usually glossy, finish. Some enamel paints contain fine glass powder or metal flake instead of the color pigments in standard oil-based paints. Enamel paint sometimes is mixed with varnish or urethane to improve its shine and hardness.
It is an additive used with paint to slow drying time and increase translucency, as in faux painting and for some artistic effects.
It is a fluid that sets as an elastic membrane that can stretch without harm. It provides UV protection to polyurethane foam and is widely used in roof restoration.
These are formulations suitable for application with the fingers. They are popular for use by children in primary school activities.
These are similar to paints, except that they are typically made using finely ground pigments or dyes, and are not designed to leave a thick film of binder. They are used largely for writing, printing, or calligraphy.
These are used to defeat the marking of surfaces by graffiti artists or vandals. There are two categories of anti-graffiti coatings: sacrificial and non-bonding:
- Sacrificial coatings are clear coatings that allow the removal of graffiti, usually by washing the surface with high-pressure water that removes the graffiti together with the coating (hence the term "sacrificial"). After removal of the graffiti, the sacrificial coating must be re-applied for continued protection. Such sacrificial protective coatings are most commonly used on natural-looking masonry surfaces, such as statuary and marble walls, and on rougher surfaces that are difficult to clean.
- Non-bonding coatings are clear, high-performance coatings, usually catalyzed polyurethanes, that do not bond strongly to paints used for graffiti. Graffiti on such a surface can be removed with a solvent wash, without damaging either the underlying surface or the protective non-bonding coating. These coatings work best on smooth surfaces, and are especially useful on decorative surfaces such as mosaics or painted murals, which might be expected to suffer harm from high pressure sprays.
It is a very hydrophobic (water-repellent) paint. It has been used by cities and other property owners to deter men from urinating against walls, as the urine splashes back on their shoes, instead of dripping down the wall.
It is a non-drying paint that appears normal but is extremely slippery. It is useful on drainpipes and ledges to deter burglars and vandals from climbing them, and is found in many public places. When a person attempts to climb objects coated with the paint, it rubs off onto the climber, as well as making it hard for them to climb.
Also called as bottom paint, these prevents barnacles and other marine organisms from adhering to the hulls of ships.
Insulative paint or insulating paint:
This reduces the rate of thermal transfer through a surface it's applied to. One type of formulation is based on the addition of hollow microspheres to any suitable type of paint.
This contains chemicals or grit to increase the friction of a surface so as to decrease the risk of slipping, particularly in wet conditions.
Road marking paint:
This is specially used to marking and painting road traffic signs and lines, to form a durable coating film on the road surface. It must be fast drying, provide a thick coating, and resist wear and slipping, especially in wet conditions.
Also known as luminescent paint, it is a paint that exhibits luminescence. In other words, it gives off visible light through fluorescence, phosphorescence, or radioluminescence.
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