White Cement or white ordinary portland cement (WOPC) is almost similar to ordinary, grey, portland cement in all respects, except for its high degree of whiteness.
Some facts about White Cement:
- The white cement requires a higher sintering temperature around 1600 degree centigrade as Fe2O3 decreases the melting point of the clinker. So, it is more expensive than the grey cement.
- It is usually made from limestone with a basic ingredient of concrete, mortar, stucco, and non-specialty grout.
- Portland Cement is produced by heating limestone and clay minerals in a kiln to form clinker. The clinker are grinded and added to 2-3 percent of gypsum to produce a fine powder.
- White concrete can be produced by using a combination of white aggregates with white cement for prestige construction projects and decorative work by using.
- White concrete usually takes the form of pre-cast cladding panels, as white cement is expensive and not economical to use for structural purposes.
- Brightly colored concretes and mortars can be produced by using white Portland cement in combination with inorganic pigments. Bright reds, yellows and greens can be readily produced with white cement.
- Blue concrete can also be producedby adding the pigments at the concrete mixer which may be expensive.
- Some manufacturers supply ready blended colored cements using white cement as a base to guarantee repeatable color.
- The whiteness of white cement is measured interms of a reflectance value which can be in excess of 85 percent.
- An off-white clinker having a reflectance value over 70 when ground can be produced at a lower cost than the original white cement. This cement with reflectance more than 80 can be produced when it is blended with ground blast furnace slag up to 60 percent depending on use and early strength.
- The Tri-Y value is used, because off-color white cement tends to be greenish when manufacturers guarantee the whiteness of the product in terms of tristimulus.
- Merely specifying a low iron content does not guarantee good whiteness as the color is much dependent on the bleaching and quenching operations.
- White Cement meets standard specifications such as ASTM C 150 and EN 197.
- The setting behavior and strength development of white cement are almost the same as that in gray cement.
- It is commonly made to a high early strength specification such as ASTM C 150 Type III as white cement is used in pre-cast concrete products which aids production rate of concrete manufacturers.
- The strength diminishing effects of pigment addition is counteracted by higher potential strength.
- Wet cement and can easily cause severe skin burns if not promptly washed off with water as it is strongly caustic.
- Dry cement powder can cause severe eye or respiratory irritation in contact with mucous membranes.
- Cement kilns are used as a processing option for various types of waste streams as they efficiently destroy many hazardous organic compounds de to the high temperatures inside cement kilns, combined with the oxygen rich atmosphere and long residence times.
- Industrial byproducts such as Slag, Fly ash, Silica fume and Synthetic gypsum from the waste stream can be used in the manufacturing of Portland cement.
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