Chandra Shekhar Azad

Chandra Shekhar Azad was an Indian revolutionary who joined the radical Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) at the age of 15.

Updated: October 26, 2019


Chandra Shekhar Azad was an Indian revolutionary who joined the radical Hindustan Republican Association (HRA) at the age of 15. He  reorganised the Hindustan Republican Association under its new name of Hindustan Socialist Republican Army (HSRA) after the death of its founder, Ram Prasad Bismil, and three other prominent party leaders, Roshan Singh, Rajendra Nath Lahiri and Ashfaqulla Khan. He grew up to be a patriotic young man with revolutionary ideas. He participated in several violent protests against the British Raj and served as an inspiration and mentor to budding revolutionary Bhagat Singh. He was born on July 23rd, 1906 and died on February 27th, 1931

Childhood of Chandra Shekhar Azad:

He was born as Chandra Shekhar Tiwari on 23 July 1906 in Bhavra village of Madhya Pradesh. His parents were Sitaram Tiwari and Jagrani Devi. His mother, Jagrani Devi Tiwari , was the third wife of Sitaram Tiwari, whose previous wives had died young. After the birth of their first son, Sukhdev Tiwari, in Badarka, the family moved to Alirajpur State.

Education of Chandra Shekhar Azad:

He was sent to Kashi Vidyapeeth, Banaras, to study as his mother aspired for him to become a great Sanskrit scholar. As a young boy he learned archery from the tribal Bhils of erstwhile Jhabua, a skill that would help him greatly during the armed struggle against the British. He was very passionate about India's freedom struggle from a young age. He was just 15 year old student when he joined the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921 launched by Mohandas K. Gandhi and was arrested for his participation.

Some facts about Chandra Shekhar Azad:

  • He was at Alfred Park in Allahabad with his revolutionary friend Sukhdev Raj on 27th February 1931 when police suddenly surrounded him from all sides and a gun battle ensued. Azad killed three policemen but was badly wounded in the process of defending himself and Sukhdev.
  • In spite of his grievous injuries he helped Sukhdev escape. When he realized that he had only one bullet left in his gun and was not in a position to escape, he shot himself dead, holding true to his pledge to never to be captured alive.
  • Alfred Park in Allahabad which is now Prayagraj, where Azad died, has been renamed Chandrashekhar Azad Park. Several schools, colleges, roads and other public institutions across India are also named after him.
  • The Colt pistol of Chandra Shekhar Azad is displayed at the Prayagraj Museum.
  • Starting from Manoj Kumar's 1965 film Shaheed, many films have featured the character of Azad.
  • The insight of his revolutionary activities are described by Manmath Nath Gupt a fellow member of HSRA in his numerous writings. Gupta has also written his biography titled 'Chandrashekhar Azad' and in his book History of the Indian Revolutionary Movement (English version of above: 1972). He gave a deep insight about the activities of Azad and the ideology of Azad and HSRA.
  • He was involved in the Kakori Train Robbery of 1925, in the attempt to blow up the Viceroy of India's train in 1926.
  • He was also involved in the shooting of J. P. Saunders at Lahore in 1928 to avenge the killing of Lala Lajpat Rai.


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