Updated: August 18, 2020
Coronary artery disease comes under cardiovascular diseases(CVD). CAD is also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD). CAD is a group of diseases that includes:
The feeling of chest pain, pressure, or squeezing is known as angina. This happens due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle as a result of obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries.
Angina that changes in intensity, character, or frequency is termed unstable. Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow is severely reduced or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Symptoms of CAD include:
Coronary artery disease has a number of risk factors which include smoking, family history, age, gender, obesity, lack of exercise, diabetes, stress, hypertension, and high blood lipids. Usually, a combination of risk factors is associated for developing CAD rather than just one. For example, obesity will leaded to type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure which can raise the risk of coronary artery disease.
Metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes elevated blood pressure, high triglycerides, high insulin levels, and excess body fat around the waist which increases the risk of coronary artery disease. Sometimes coronary artery disease develops without any common risk factors such as:
Sleep apnea interrupts your sleep by repeatedly stopping and starting breathing while you are sleeping. Sudden drops in blood oxygen levels that occur during sleep apnea increase blood pressure and strain the cardiovascular system leading to coronary artery disease.
High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is a normal protein that raises when there is inflammation in your body. As coronary arteries narrow, you will have more hs-CRP in your blood. High hs-CRP levels are a risk factor for heart disease.
Homocysteine is an amino acid your body uses to make protein and to build and maintain tissue. High levels of homocysteine may increase your risk of coronary artery disease.
This is a kind of lipid in your blood. High levels of triglycerides may increase the risk of coronary artery disease, especially for women.
Complications of coronary artery disease include:
The feeling of chest pain, pressure, or squeezing is known as angina. This happens due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle particularly during physical activity as a result of obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries.
If a plaque ruptures and a blood clot forms, your heart artery may complete blocked. The lack of blood flow to your heart may damage your heart muscle leading to a heart attack.
If some parts of your heart are severely deprived of oxygen and nutrients because of reduced blood flow, or if your heart has been damaged by a heart attack, your heart may become too weak to pump enough blood to meet your body's requirements. This condition is known as heart failure causing the death of the person.
Insufficient blood supply to the heart or damage to heart tissue can interfere with your heart's electrical impulses, causing abnormal heart rhythms.