Diabetes Insipidus: Cause, Types, symptoms & Complications

Diabetes insipidus is a term for any condition that causes your body to make a lot of urine and make you extra thirsty. This condition is nothing to do with high blood sugar.

Updated: July 24, 2020

Diabetes insipidus is a term for any condition that causes your body to make a lot of urine and make you extra thirsty.This condition is nothing to do with high blood sugar.

Cause of Diabetes Insipidus:

Diabetes insipidus occurs when your fluid regulation system doesn't work properly.

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) also known as vasopressin is produced in hypothalamus, a part of human brain and is stored in your pituitary gland.It tells your kidneys to hold onto water, which makes your urine more concentrated. ADH levels rise When you are thirsty or slightly dehydrated. ADH is released into your bloodstream when your body starts to become dehydrated. ADH then concentrates the urine by triggering the kidney tubules to release water back into your bloodstream rather than excreting as much water into your urine. If this system is disrupted diabetes insipidus occurs.

Types of Diabetes Insipidus:

The way in which your system is disrupted determines which form of diabetes insipidus you have:

Central Diabetes Insipidus:

Central diabetes insipidus can be due to damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland or genetics.This damage disrupts the normal production, storage and release of ADH. The damage is commonly due to surgery, a tumor, an illness (such as meningitis), inflammation or a head injury.

Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus:

Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidneys do not respond properly to vasopressin. The defect may be due to an inherited (genetic) disorder or a chronic kidney disorder.

Dipsogenic Diabetes Insipidus:

Dipsogenic DI primary polydipsia is due to abnormal thirst mechanisms in the hypothalamus results from excessive intake of fluids as opposed to deficiency of arginine vasopressin. It may be due to a defect or damage to the thirst mechanism, located in the hypothalamus or due to mental illness.

Pestational Diabetes Insipidus:

Gestational diabetes insipidus occurs only during pregnancy and the postpartum period. During pregnancy, women produce vasopressinase in the placenta, which breaks down ADH.

Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus:

The symptoms for DI include excessive urination, extreme thirst and increased fluid intake especially for cold water.Extreme urination continues throughout the day and the night.

Infants and young children who have diabetes insipidus may have the following signs and symptoms:

  •     Diarrhea
  •     Unexplained fussiness or inconsolable crying
  •     Fever
  •     Trouble sleeping
  •     Vomiting
  •     Delayed growth
  •     Weight loss

As long as enough water is consumed to compensate the urinary losses, a person with DI remain healthy for decades. However, there is a continuous risk of dehydration and loss of potassium and other minerals in body that may lead to hypokalemia and other complications.

Complications of Diabetes Insipidus:


With DI your body is unable to retain sufficient amount of water to function properly leading to dehydration. Dehydration can cause

  • Low blood pressure (hypotension)
  • Elevated blood sodium (hypernatremia)
  • Headache
  • Fever
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Weight loss
  • Dry mouth
  • Changes in skin elasticity

Severe dehydration can lead to seizures, permanent brain damage, and even death.

Electrolyte Imbalance:

Minerals such as Sodium and potassium in your body are the electrolytes. Diabetes insipidus can also cause an electrolyte imbalance resulting in

  • Nausea
  • Muscle cramps
  • Confusion
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue or lethargy

Related Articles

PCOS and Thyroid Disorders

PCOS and Thyroid Disorders

The abnormalities in thyroid hormones can play a major role in developing PCOS, which is also often influenced by a condition called insulin resistance.

Complications of Appendicitis and Conditions That Mimic Appendicitis

Complications of Appendicitis and Conditions That Mimic Appendicitis

The appendix is a closed-ended, narrow, worm-like tube which is attached to the the first part of the colon called cecum. The wall of the appendix contains lymphatic tissue which is a part of the immune system. The inner lining of the appen

10 Home Remedies for Dry Scalp

10 Home Remedies for Dry Scalp

Dry scalp can be because of many variables like absence of moisture, horrible eating routine, stress, ecological conditions and so on. Normal massage and oiling decreases the dryness in scalp.

Chemical Pregnancy: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Chemical Pregnancy: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

The reason it is known as chemical pregnancy is the initial stage of pregnancy, the only biochemical test will be able to detect the pregnancy.

Complications of Heart Attack

Complications of Heart Attack

Complications of heart attack can vary from mild to life threatening. For minor heart attack there will not be any associated complications, although it can still be very serious.

Premenopause, Perimenopause, and Menopause

Premenopause, Perimenopause, and Menopause

There are actually different stages within menopause that are important to recognize and understand. Menopause itself officially occurs when you stop menstruating for one year. Where as perimenopause the menopause transitional phase, which

Menopause and Heart Disease

Menopause and Heart Disease

Once a woman reaches the age of 50, about the age of natural menopause, her risk for heart disease increases. Menopause does not cause cardiovascular diseases. However, certain risk factors increase around the time of menopause and a high-f

Vaccine For Typhoid Fever: Inactivated and Live typhoid vaccine

Vaccine For Typhoid Fever: Inactivated and Live typhoid vaccine

Typhoid or typhoid fever is a serious disease caused by bacteria called Salmonella Typhi. High fever, fatigue, weakness, stomach pains, headache, loss of appetite, and sometimes a rash are the most common symptoms of typhoid.

Suppliers Across World

Browse suppliers across the globe including Faroe Islands, Romania, South Sudan, Lesotho, Suriname, Guinea, Israel, New Zealand, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Brunei, Tajikistan, Iraq, United Arab Emirates, Belize, Gambia, Poland, Jamaica, Morocco, Venezuela, Bahrain, Slovenia, Mongolia, Bouvet Island, French Polynesia, Dominica, Singapore, Myanmar, Martinique, Burundi, Philippines, France, Chile, Cook Islands, Liechtenstein, Malaysia, United States, Hong Kong, Comoros, Cameroon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Andorra, Equatorial Guinea, Nauru, Zambia, Kyrgyzstan, Marshall Islands, Denmark, Saint Lucia and other localities of World as well..