Updated: July 24, 2020
Diabetes insipidus is a term for any condition that causes your body to make a lot of urine and make you extra thirsty.This condition is nothing to do with high blood sugar.
The way in which your system is disrupted determines which form of diabetes insipidus you have:
Central diabetes insipidus can be due to damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland or genetics.This damage disrupts the normal production, storage and release of ADH. The damage is commonly due to surgery, a tumor, an illness (such as meningitis), inflammation or a head injury.
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus occurs when the kidneys do not respond properly to vasopressin. The defect may be due to an inherited (genetic) disorder or a chronic kidney disorder.
Dipsogenic DI primary polydipsia is due to abnormal thirst mechanisms in the hypothalamus results from excessive intake of fluids as opposed to deficiency of arginine vasopressin. It may be due to a defect or damage to the thirst mechanism, located in the hypothalamus or due to mental illness.
Gestational diabetes insipidus occurs only during pregnancy and the postpartum period. During pregnancy, women produce vasopressinase in the placenta, which breaks down ADH.
As long as enough water is consumed to compensate the urinary losses, a person with DI remain healthy for decades. However, there is a continuous risk of dehydration and loss of potassium and other minerals in body that may lead to hypokalemia and other complications.
With DI your body is unable to retain sufficient amount of water to function properly leading to dehydration. Dehydration can cause
Severe dehydration can lead to seizures, permanent brain damage, and even death.
Minerals such as Sodium and potassium in your body are the electrolytes. Diabetes insipidus can also cause an electrolyte imbalance resulting in