Updated: February 16, 2018
Diabetes is a group of diseases in which the body either doesn't produce enough or any insulin, does not properly use the insulin that is produced, or a combination of both. When any of these things happens, the body is unable to get sugar from the blood into the cells.
That leads to high blood sugar levels.Lack of insulin or resistance to insulin causes sugar to build up in your blood. This can lead to many health complications.
Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin is mainly due to genetic issue. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It happens when your immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the beta cells in your pancreas that produce insulin. The damage is permanent.
Type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, but it can develop in adults also. Type 1 diabetes can be diagnosed by doing a fasting blood glucose test along with a random blood glucose test.
Sometimes a urine test is followed by a blood test as people with type 1 diabetes should monitor their ketone levels. Urine tests are not used to diagnose diabetes, but they may be used to monitor the levels of urine ketones and urine glucose in a person. Sometimes it is done to make sure the diabetes is being managed well.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease which is also known as insulin resistance or noninsulin-dependent diabetes, which affects the metabolism of your body in a way that increases the sugar (glucose) level.Type 2 diabetes usually affects the adults.The risk raises with age. Type 2 diabetes can be confirmed by a fasting blood glucose test along with a random blood glucose test.
Gestational diabetes is due to insulin blocking hormones produced during pregnancy. This type of diabetes occurs without a previous history of diabetes . Gestational diabetes only occurs during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can be diagnosed by glucose tolorence test. This test is done to measures how efficiently your body produces insulin. Gestational diabetes needs to be recognized and treated quickly because it can cause health problems for both mother and baby.
Prediabetes indicates a condition that occurs when a person's blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough for a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes is also diagnosed by a fasting blood glucose test followed by a random blood glucose test.
In some cases, blood glucose testing may also be used to test for hypoglycemia. This condition occurs when the levels of glucose in your blood are too low.
If you are a diabetic you may have to get blood glucose tests done frequently to determine if your condition is being managed well. A high glucose level in a person with diabetes indicates that your diabetes is not being managed properly and you need to change your treatment plan.
HbA1c is also known as glycosylated, or glycated hemoglobin, is a form of hemoglobin that is bound to glucose and is routinely performed in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus as this is helps to determine how well a type 1 or type 2 diabetes treatment plan including medications, exercise, or dietary changes is working.
Blood glucose levels over the past eight to twelve weeks are measured in this test. This test do not reflect daily ups and downs of blood glucose. Therefore neither it can be used for adjusting insulin doses nor can it detect the day-to-day presence or absence of hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia.