Updated: June 16, 2022
Guru Gobind Singh or Gobind Rai was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher. When his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, was beheaded for refusing to convert to Islam, Guru Gobind Singh was formally installed as the leader of the Sikhs at age nine, becoming the tenth Sikh Guru.
Founding the Sikh warrior community called Khalsa in 1699 and introducing the Five Ks, the five articles of faith that Khalsa Sikhs wear at all times was among his notable contributions to Sikhism. He was born on December 22nd, 1666 and died on October 7th, 1708. He dictated the Guru Granth Sahib to Bhai Mani Singh and at the time of his death, passed the mantle of the Guruship to the holy text .
Guru Gobind Singh was born on 22 December 1666 in Patna, India, to Guru Tegh Bahadur and his wife Gujri. Named Gobind Rai at birth, he was the couple's only child. His father was the 9th Guru of Sikhs and was on a preaching tour in Assam at the time of Gobind Rai's birth. His father toured frequently so he left his family under the protection of the local Raja. In 1670, Tegh Bahadur went to Chak Nanki (Anandpur) and called for his family to join him.
In 1671, Gobind Rai journeyed with his family through Danapur and started receiving his basic education on the journey itself. He learnt Persian, Sanskrit and martial skills. He and his mother finally joined his father in Anandpur in 1672 where his education continued.
Guru Gobind Singh had three wives. At age 10, he married Mata Jito on 21st June 1677 at Basantga?h, 10 km north of Anandpur. The couple had three sons: Jujhar Singh (b. 1691), Zorawar Singh (b. 1696) and Fateh Singh (b. 1699).
At age 17, he married Mata Sundari on 4th April 1684 at Anandpur. The couple had one son, Ajit Singh (b. 1687).
At age 33, he married Mata Sahib Devan on 15th April 1700 at Anandpur. They had no children, but she had an influential role in Sikhism. Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed her as the 'Mother of the Khalsa'.
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