Updated: October 25, 2019
Indira Gandhi was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress. She was the first and the only female Prime Minister of India till date. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. She served as Prime Minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984. She is the second longest-serving Indian Prime Minister, after her father.
She was known for her political ruthlessness and extraordinary centralization of power. It was during her premiership that India became the regional power in South Asia with considerable political, economic, and military clout. She was born in November 19th, 1917 and died on October 31st, 1984.
Indira Gandhi was born as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru in a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a leading figure in India's political struggle for independence from British rule, and became the first Prime Minister of India. She was the only child of Jawaharlal Nehru and Kamla Nehru. A younger brother was born, but died young. She grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan. She had a lonely and unhappy childhood as her father was mostly away from home due to his political commitments and her mother frequently suffered from bouts of illness.
Indira attained her preliminary education at home after which she briefly attended school to complete her matriculation. Indira was enrolled at the Viswa Bharti University in Calcutta but had to leave the same due to the ailing health of her mother in Europe. Post the death of her mother, Indira attended the University of Oxford in Britain, where she studied history, political science and economics. However, due to her constant ill-health, she returned to India without a degree.
Indira Nehru got married in March 1942 to Feroze Gandhi and blessed with two sons Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi.
Birbal Sahni was an Indian paleobotanist who studied the fossils of the Indian subcontinent.
Shanti Swaroop Bhatnagar was an Indian colloid chemist, academic and scientific administrator.
Prafulla Chandra Ray was an Indian chemist, educationist, historian, industrialist and philanthropist.
Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis was an Indian Bengali scientist and applied statistician.