Madan Mohan Malaviya

Mahamana Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya or simply Madan Mohan Malaviya was an Indian educationist and politician.

Updated: June 16, 2022

Mahamana Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya or simply Madan Mohan Malaviya was an Indian educationist and politician notable for his role in the Indian independence movement and as the four times president of Indian National Congress. He was respectfully addressed as Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya and also addressed as 'Mahamana'. He was the founder of Banaras Hindu University (BHU) at Varanasi in 1916, which was created under the B.H.U. Act, 1915. It is the largest residential university in Asia and one of the largest in the world.


He was Vice Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University from 1919–1938. Malaviya was one of the founders of Scouting in India. He also founded a highly influential, English-newspaper, The Leader published from Allahabad in 1909. He was also the Chairman of Hindustan Times from 1924 to 1946. He was the person who launched the Hindi edition named Hindustan Dainik in 1936.


He is also remembered for his role in ending 'Indentured Labours' particularly to West Indies. He was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian award, on 24 December 2014, a day before his 153rd Birth Anniversary.


He was born on December 25th, 1861 and died on November 12th, 1946.


Childhood of Madan Mohan Malaviya:

He was born on December 25th, 1861, in Allahabad, India, in a Brahmin family to Pandit Brij Nath and his wife Moona Devi as their fifth child among five sons and two daughters.


His ancestors were Sanskrit scholars originally hailing from Malwa, Madhya Pradesh, hence called the 'Malaviyas', while their actual surname was Chaturvedi.
His father, a Sanskrit scholar, was an exceptional Kathavachak, who recited the stories from 'Srimad Bhagavat'. Young Malaviya also aspired to become a Kathavachak like his father.


Education of Madan Mohan Malaviya:

The elementary education of Malaviya began in Sanskrit at five years of age. He completed his primary education from 'Dharma Gyanopadesh Pathshala' of Pandit Hardeva and thereafter studied in a school run by 'Vidha Vardini Sabha'. Thereafter he studied at 'Allahabad Zila School', an English medium school. Here he began to write poems with pseudonym 'Makarand', which were later published during 1883-84 in 'Harischandra Chandrika' magazine. His articles on contemporary and religious subjects were published in 'Hindi Pradeepa'. In 1879 he completed his matriculation from 'Muir Central College' (presently the 'Allahabad University').


As his family was going through a financial crisis, the Principal of 'Harrison College' helped him with a monthly scholarship with which he studied at the 'University of Calcutta' and earned a B.A. degree.


He wanted to pursue masters in Sanskrit, but the financial condition of his family forced him to take up a job of a teacher at the Government high school in Allahabad in July 1884, drawing a monthly salary of Rs/- 40only.


Family of Madan Mohan Malaviya:

In 1878 he married Kumari Devi of Mirzapur and had two sons Ramakant Malaviya and Govind Malaviya.


Some facts about Madan Mohan Malaviya:

  • After earning his L.L.B., he began to practice in Allahabad District Court in 1891.
  • In 1893 he started practicing in Allahabad High Court.
  • He was elected the president of the 'Indian National Congress' in In 1909 and 1918.
  • The 'Poona Pact' agreement was signed between him and Dr. Ambedkar on September 25th, 1932. It provided reserve seats for the depressed classes (denoting the untouchables among Hindus) in the general electorate in the Provincial legislatures, instead of forming separate electorate.
  • He passed away in Varanasi on November 12th, 1946.



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