Management of High blood pressure or Hypertension

Changing your lifestyle can help controlling high blood pressure. It is always recommend to eat a healthy diet with less salt, exercise regularly, quit smoking and maintain a healthy weight.

Updated: July 24, 2020

We have two numbers in blood pressure reading. The top number called systolic blood pressure is the pressure in the arteries as the heart contracts. The bottom number called diastolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries as the heart relaxes.


Normal blood pressure is below 120/80. Blood pressure between 120/80 and 139/89 is called "pre-hypertension," and a blood pressure of 140/90 or above is considered high while a systolic blood pressure of about 90 to 100 is considered low blood pressure. It is recommended to manage bloood pressure to less than or equal to somewhere between 140/90 mmHg to 160/100 mmHg.


Changing your lifestyle can help  controlling high blood pressure. It is always recommend to eat a healthy diet with less salt, exercise regularly, quit smoking and maintain a healthy weight. But sometimes lifestyle changes aren't enough. In addition to diet and exercise, medication is recommend  to lower your blood pressure.


Lifestyle Changes to Manage High Blood Pressure:

Recommended lifestyle changes to lower your blood pressure include:

Eat healthy foods:

Eat a healthy diet. Try adding fruits, vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish and low-fat dairy foods in your daily diet. Include  diet rich in potassium, magnesium, calcium, which can help prevent and control high blood pressure. Eat less saturated fat and trans fat.

Decrease the salt in your diet:

Limiting intake of sodium can help prevent and control high blood pressure. Pay attention to the amount of salt that is in the processed foods you eat.

Maintain a healthy weight:

If you are overweight or obese, maintain Keeping a healthy weight, or losing weight .This can help you control your high blood pressure and lower your risk of related health problems.

Regular Exercise:

Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure, manage stress, reduce your risk of several health problems and keep your weight under control.
 Isometric resistance exercise, aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, and device-guided breathing may be useful in reducing blood pressure.

Quit Smoking and Alcohol:

Tobacco  and alcohol are injurious for blood vessel walls and speeds up the process of hardening of the arteries. Try quitting these habits.

Manage stress:

As much as possible reduce your mental stress. Practice  muscle relaxation, deep breathing or meditation. Involve in regular physical activity and sufficient sleep can help reducing stress.

Monitor your blood pressure at home:

Regular monitoring your BP at home will help managing your hypertension.
   

Medications to Manage High Blood Pressure:


Beta Blockers:

These medications helps your heart to beat slower and with less force .Hence reduces the workload on your heart and open your blood vessels. Beta blockers include acebutolol (Sectral), atenolol (Tenormin) and others.

Beta blockers are always prescribed with a  combination of other blood pressure medications to work more effectively.

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors:

These medications such as lisinopril (Zestril), benazepril (Lotensin),

captopril (Capoten) and others blocks the formation of a natural chemical that narrows blood vessels. Hence help relax blood vessels. ACE inhibitor as one of the best medicine recommended for People with chronic kidney disease .

Thiazide Diuretics:

Diuretics, sometimes called water pills, are medications recommended for your kidneys to help your body eliminate sodium and water. Hence reduces blood volume.

Thiazide diuretics include hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide), chlorthalidone and others.

Diuretics or calcium channel blockers may work better  than  angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors alone. A common side effect of diuretics is increased urination.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs): These medications blocks the formation of a natural chemical that narrows blood vessels, resulting in  relax blood vessels . ARBs include candesartan (Atacand), losartan (Cozaar) and others. ARB is one of the medicine recommended for  People with chronic kidney disease.

Renin Inhibitors:

Aliskiren (Tekturna) slows down the production of an enzyme  called renin , produced by your kidneys that starts a chain of chemical procedure which increases blood pressure.

Aliskiren works by reducing the ability of renin to begin this process. It is not recommended to take aliskiren with ACE inhibitors or ARBs, due to a risk of serious complications, including stroke.

Calcium Channel Blockers:

These medications including amlodipine (Norvasc), diltiazem (Cardizem, Tiazac, others) and others  helps relax the muscles of your blood vessels. Some helps slowing down your heart rate. Calcium channel blockers works better than  ACE inhibitors alone.

Grapefruit juice interacts with some calcium channel blockers putting you at higher risk of side effects.
A combination of low-dose medications rather than larger doses of one single drug is more effective.

Uncontrolled Hypertenstion:


Despite taking at least three different types of high blood pressure medicines, if your blood pressure remains uncontrolled, you may have resistant hypertension. You have to choose a right combination of medications to control the blood pressure more effectively. Adding an aldosterone antagonist such as spironolactone (Aldactone) usually helps to control of resistant hypertension.



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