Prevention and Management of Cardiovascular Disease

Cardiovascular disease are preventable if the risk factors associated with it are avoided. A healthy lifestyle can lower your risk of CVD. If you already have CVD, adopting a healthy lifestyle can reduce the chances of it getting worse.

Updated: August 17, 2020

Cardiovascular disease is preventable if the risk factors associated with it are avoided. A healthy lifestyle can lower your risk of CVD. If you already have CVD, adopting a healthy lifestyle can reduce the chances of it getting worse.


Prevention of CVD:

The ways you can reduce your CVD risk include the following steps:


Have a balanced diet:

A healthy and balanced diet is recommended for a healthy heart. A balanced diet includes: 
Plenty of fruit and vegetables. Eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables a day.

Plenty of fiber and wholegrain foods:

Reduce the intake of saturated fat which is found in foods such as fatty cuts of meat, cream, cakes and biscuits, processed food. Try to include healthier sources of fat-containing omega-3 fatty acids, such as oily fish, olive oil, nuts, and seeds.


Use less of salt in your food:

Reduce the amount of sugar intake.
Having a diet, high in fruits and vegetables, nuts, fish, and low in sweets, salt, red meat, and fat will help reducing blood pressure, blood glucose, lower total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and improve metabolic syndrome.

Exercise regularly:

Aerobic activities such as cycling or brisk walking can be done for 20 to 30 mins on a regular basis to keep you active. Regular exercise will help you in weight loss and improves blood glucose control, blood pressure, lipid profile, and insulin sensitivity.


Limit alcohol:

Consume alcohol to the recommended daily limit. Consumption of less alcohol has lower rates of cardiovascular disease.


Stop smoking:

Quit smoking as soon as possible to prevent CVD. Avoidance of second-hand smoke will also help prevent CVD.


Maintain a healthy weight:

Maintain your BMI below 25. If you are overweight or obese, a combination of regular exercise and a healthy diet can help you lose weight.


Lower blood pressure level:

Lower blood pressure level if it is high. Maintaining blood pressure in the normal range will help prevent CVD.


Lower Cholesterol Level:

Decrease non-HDL cholesterol and increase HDL cholesterol will keep your heart healthy.


Maintain Blood Glucose Level:

Cardiovascular disease is the most life-threatening of the diabetic complications.diabetics are 2 to 4 times more likely to die of cardiovascular-related causes than nondiabetics. Controlling your blood glucose level if elevated will prevent many health complications along with CVD.


Decrease psychosocial stress:

Mental stress can cause myocardial ischemia which will have an increased risk of heart problems in those people with previous heart disease. Severe emotional and physical stress leads to a kind of heart dysfunction known as takotsubo syndrome in some people. Hence avoid psychosocial stress as much as possible.

Medications to prevent CVD:

Statins are helpful to lower blood cholesterol levels. These are effective in preventing further cardiovascular disease in people with a history of cardiovascular diseaseFor people at risk, but without a history of cardiovascular disease, this medication can be used as primary prevention as statins decrease the risk of death and combined fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseaseAnti-diabetic medication may reduce cardiovascular risk in people with Type 2 Diabetes. A low dose of aspirin can be recommended to prevent blood clots. 

Management:

Cardiovascular disease is treatable by primarily focusing on diet and lifestyle changes. Influenza may cause heart attacks and strokes and therefore influenza vaccination may decrease the chance of cardiovascular complications and death in people with heart disease. Niacin, a type of vitamin B3, can be used as a dietary supplement with a modest decrease in the risk of cardiovascular events in those at high risk. Proper CVD management requires a focus on MI and stroke cases due to their combined high mortality rate.



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