Treatment, Precautions and Prevention of Vertigo

Some types of vertigo doesn't reqire any treatment. This is because your brain is able to adapt to the inner ear changes, relying on other mechanisms to maintain balance. But vertigo caused by bacterial infection, need medical attention.

Updated: August 17, 2020

Some types of vertigo don't require any treatment. This is because your brain is able to adapt to the inner ear changes, relying on other mechanisms to maintain balance. But vertigo caused by any underlying problem, such as a bacterial infection, needs medical attention. There are several ways of treatments for vertigo including home remedies, medications, and physical therapy maneuvers.

Treatment of  Vertigo :

Treatment for vertigo depends on what's causing it.

The Epley maneuver to cure BPPV:

This technique is also known as canalith repositioning used when the vertigo is caused by BPPV. A series of specific head and body movements for BPPV is recommended. The movements are done to move the calcium deposits out of the canal into an inner ear chamber so they can be absorbed by the body. They cause less irritation to the inner ear by re-positioning these crystals and symptoms can resolve.  Initially, this may lead to worsening of the vertigo symptoms during the procedure as the canaliths move.
Sometimes minor surgery is required to treat patients with BPPV. A bone plug is inserted into the inner ear to block the area that is triggering the dizziness. This part of the ear is prevented by the plug from responding to particle movements or head movements.

Vestibular Rehabilitation Habituation Exercises:

This is a series of eye and head movements that lead to decreased sensitivity of the nerves within the inner ear. This is also known as Cawthorne head exercises. For the best result, this exercise should be practiced by the patient on a regular basis.

Medications:

Medications may provide some symptomatic relief, but are not recommended for long-term use. Vestibular suppressants or anti-emetics can be used to reduce motion sickness and nausea. Steroids such as prednisone, antiviral drugs such as acyclovir, or antibiotics such as amoxicillin are prescribed for patients with an acute vestibular disorder linked to a middle ear infection. 

Treatment of Meniere's disease:

  • For Meniere's disease, diazepam or lorazepam can be used to relieve dizziness. You should Restrict the intake of salt and diuretics to reducing the volume of fluid retained in the body.
  • Drink plenty of fluids and avoid substances that can affect circulation such as caffeine, chocolate, alcohol, and tobacco to reduce symptoms of vertigo. Sometimes surgery is required to decompress the endolymphatic sac or to cut the vestibular nerve.
  • If vertigo is caused by a more serious underlying problem such as a tumor or injury to the brain or neck, treatment for those problems may help to reduce vertigo.
  • diazepam or lorazepam can be used to relieve the dizziness.
  • Some alternative treatments such as acupuncture, acupressure, and herbal supplements can be tried. Vitamin D supplementation may be beneficial for patients diagnosed with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

Precautions for People With Vertigo:

People with vertigo should not drive or use a ladder. Getting up slowly may reduce the problem. People should also take care when looking upward.

Prevention of Vertigo:

  • Maintaining a healthy lifestyle will decrease the risks of experiencing vertigo. Risk factors for stroke can be controlled to decrease the risk of developing central vertigo.
  • This can be done by maintaining blood pressure, cholesterol, weight, and blood glucose levels in normal ranges.
  • Controlling salt intake may be helpful to decrease symptoms of vertigo in cases of Meniere's disease. Performing vestibular rehabilitation exercises on a regular basis may help prevent recurrent peripheral vertigo.


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