Type-2 Diabetes: Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors & Complications
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease which is also known as insulin resistance or noninsulin dependent diabetes, which affects the metabolism of your body in a way that increases the sugar (glucose) level.
Type 2 diabetes is non curable but can be managed by eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy weight & lifestyle.
Common Symptoms of Type-2 Diabetes
- Weight loss: The body uses alternative fuels stored in muscle and fat being unable to metabolized glucose leading to weight loss.
- Increased thirst: The fluid present in our tissues will be pulled by excess sugar generated in the bloodstream causing increased thirst then usual.
- Increased hunger: Due to lack of insuline sugar can't move in to your cell leading to lack of energy in muscles and organ causing increased hunger.
- Frequent urination: Increased thirst lead to drink more water hence causing frequent urination
- Tiredness: Since your cells doesn't have sufficient energy so you became tied and irritable.
- Poor healing capacity of wound and cuts / frequent infection: Type 2 diabetes will be resistance to any type of infection and healing capacity in you body.
- Dark Patches: Usually appears in folds and creases of your body.
Causes of Type-2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is primarily due to lifestyle factors such as obesity,lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress etc.
Another factor is genetics. Type 2 diabetes develops when your pancreas stop producing enough insulin resulting the sugar produced in the body moving to the bloodstream instead of the cells causing the raise in blood sugar level in your body.
Risk Factors of Type-2 Diabetes
- Obesity: The primary risk factor for type 2 diabetes is obesity.If you are overweight,the fatty tissue will make your cell insulin resistance, developing a risk for Type 2 Diabetes.
- Lack of physical activity: Physical activity helps you control your weight. Regular exercise uses up the stored glucose in your body as energy and makes your cells more sensitive to insulin. Lack of exercise increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.
- Genetics: The risk of type 2 diabetes increases if you have a family history.
- Dietary factors: Consuming more junk food and sugar-sweetened drinks increase the risk of type 2 diabetes. The type of fat you are consuming in your daily life plays a major role in the risk of type 2 diabetes. Saturated fat and trans fats increases the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreases the risk.
Complications of Type-2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes affects many major organs, including your heart, blood vessels, nerves, eyes and kidneys. Controlling your blood sugar levels can help prevent these complications.
The complications can be life-threatening if left untreated. You have to monitor your blood sugar level on a regular basis to avoid all these complications.
- Cardiovascular Issues: Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of various cardiovascular problems, including coronary artery disease with chest pain, heart attack, stroke, narrowing of arteries.
- High Blood Pressure: Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of high blood pressure.
- Neurological Issue: Type 2 diabetes can cause tingling, numbness, burning or pain that usually begins at the tips of the toes or fingers and gradually spreads upward. Poorly controlled blood sugar can eventually cause you to lose all sense of feeling in the affected limbs.
- Kidney Issue: Type 2 diabetes can affect the filtering system of Kidney. Severe damage can lead to kidney failure , which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant.
- Eye Issues: Type 2 diabetes can damage the blood vessels of the retina (diabetic retinopathy), leading to blindness. This also increases the risk of other serious vision conditions, such as cataracts and glaucoma.
- Skin Issues: In Type 2 diabetes you will be more susceptible to skin problems, including bacterial and fungal infections.
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